Multiple Sclerosis – Symptoms, Signs and treatment of multiple sclerosis disease

What is multiple sclerosis?
Multiple sclerosis (MS) may be a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the central systema nervosum (CNS). Normally, antibodies produced by the system help protect the body against viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances. Multiple sclerosis symptoms signs and treatment of multiple sclerosis disease

In people that have MS, the system attacks the body. Antibodies destroy the substance that surrounds and protects your nerve cells, called the medullary sheath .

The CNS is formed from your brain, medulla spinalis , and optic nerves. Its job is to quickly send messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. Damaged or destroyed myelin can hamper and block these messages.

There are four sorts of MS:

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treatment of multiple sclerosis disease

Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS). this is often a 24-hour episode with neurologic symptoms almost like MS. it’s caused by swollen and damaged myelin. people that have CIS should get a MRI on their brain.

If lesions are found, the danger of getting MS is increased. Some people might not have future episodes or develop MS.

Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). This is often the foremost common sort of MS. people that have RRMS have relapses, or flare-ups, where new symptoms occur or old symptoms go to pot .

Then, there’s a period of recovery, or remission, where symptoms recover or get away for a few time. In RRMS, relapses could also be triggered by an infection, like the flu. The disease doesn’t worsen between flare-ups.

Primary progressive MS (PPMS). About 15% to twenty of individuals who have MS develop PPMS. During this sort of MS, the disease gets steadily worse, with few or no relapses, remissions, or new brain lesions.

Secondary progressive MS (SPMS). About 50% of individuals who have RRMS will develop SPMS. During this form, ongoing relapses and remissions may cause a rise in level of disability and new brain lesions over time.

Symptoms of MS

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MS affects normal sensation, thinking, and movement. Symptoms vary counting on the part(s) of the body where the medullary sheath is broken . Symptoms of MS are often mild. In rare cases, people may have some paralysis and lose the power to write down , speak, or walk.

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Common symptoms include:

  • Vision problems, including diplopia , blurriness, partial colour blindness , eye pain, and partial or complete loss of vision
  • Thinking and memory problems
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Numbness or weakness on one side or rock bottom half your body
  • Trouble with coordination and balance
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control
  • Sensations like numbness or tingling (called “pins and needles”)
  • Tremors, spasms, or seizures
  • Electric-shock sensations caused by moving your head during a certain way
  • Vaginal dryness in women
  • Erectile dysfunction in men


Symptoms of MS often come and go. Relapses may last for days, weeks, or months. For it to be considered a relapse, symptoms must last a minimum of 24 hours and occur a minimum of 30 days after the last relapse
.

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During remission, your symptoms may continue or disappear for a short time . Lesions can form and permanently affect nerves therein area.

For pregnant women, MS symptoms improve during pregnancy. Unfortunately, symptoms return within a couple of months of parturition . MS doesn’t increase the risks which will occur during any pregnancy. This includes pregnancy-induced hypertension (high blood pressure).

 

What causes multiple sclerosis?

The exact explanation for MS in unknown. it’s presumably the results of genetic and environmental factors. variety of viruses have also been linked to MS. A childhood virus may trigger MS later in life.

MS affects women quite twice as often as men. White (Caucasian) people are more likely to develop it than people of other races. MS can run in families. Your risk of MS increases if someone in your family, like a parent or sibling, has it. MS can affect people of any age, but it often begins between the ages of 20 and 40.

If you’ve got another autoimmune disorder , like thyroid disease or Type 1 diabetes, your risk of MS is higher. Some studies show that where you reside can affect your risk of getting MS. people that get older in areas with a light climate, like northern us or southern Canada, seem to be at a better risk for MS.

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How is MS diagnosed?
Like other autoimmune diseases, MS are often difficult to diagnose. most frequently , the primary symptoms of MS are vision problems. Symptoms also can affect different parts of the body. Your doctor will ask about your health history and do a full exam.

Before making a diagnosis, your doctor will want to rule out other possible causes of your symptoms. to try to to this, they’ll order certain tests, such as:

Blood tests. Your blood can show signs of illnesses that cause symptoms almost like those of MS.
Neurological tests.Your doctor might want you to ascertain a specialist. A neurologist can test how well your central systema nervosum is functioning . they’re going to search for changes in eye movements, muscle coordination, weakness, balance, sensation, speech, and reflexes.
Spinal tap (lumbar puncture).

A small amount of fluid taken from your spine can show abnormal amounts of blood cells or proteins related to MS. A lumbar puncture can rule out a virus infection or other possible conditions.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).An MRI can show detailed pictures of the brain and medulla spinalis , and if there are any lesions, or scars. Lesions aren’t always caused by MS.
In order to diagnose MS, you must:

Have damaged myelin in a minimum of two areas of the CNS.

Have had a minimum of two relapses, or episodes, that caused damage.
Your doctor also must have ruled out all other potential diagnoses.

Can MS be prevented or avoided? You cannot prevent or avoid MS since the cause is unknown.

Multiple sclerosis treatment
There is currently no cure for MS. The goal of treatment is to assist you deal with and relieve symptoms, slow the progress of the disease and maintain an honest quality of life. this will be done through a mixture of drugs and physical, occupational, and therapy .

Medicine
People who have mild symptoms may choose to not take medicine thanks to potential risks and side effects. ask your doctor about the advantages and risks of all drug options.

Certain medicines can help relieve symptoms and treat short-term problems caused by MS.

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Bladder problems: tolterodine, oxybutynin.
Constipation: stool softener, laxative.
Depression: venlafaxine, paroxetine.
Pain: phenytoin, gabapentin.
Muscle stiffness and spasms: dantrolene, baclofen.
Urinary problems: desmopressin, methenamine, phenazopyridine.
Erectile dysfunction: tadalafil, alprostadil.
Other sorts of medicine can affect the long-term outcomes of the disease.

Interferons are a gaggle of natural proteins made by human cells. Studies show they will hamper the worsening of symptoms.

These medicines are often given as an injection (a shot). samples of interferons wont to treat MS are IFN Beta-1a and IFN Beta-1b. Interferons may cause serious liver damage. Other side effects include flu-like symptoms and depression.

Glatiramer acetates are thought to dam the cells that damage myelin.

It can cause fewer relapses and fewer new lesions. the drugs is taken as an attempt once each day .

Side effects may include hives or pain at the injection site, heart tremors, and shortness of breath. Two other sort of medicine could also be wont to treat severe or advanced MS.

Natalizumab: this is often an option for people that have tried other drugs first and not had good results. It can have serious side effects, and will not be utilized in combination with other disease-modifying drugs.

One known side effect is an increased risk of a fatal brain infection.

Mitoxantrone: This is often an option for people that have increased relapse and remission periods, progressive MS, or worsened symptoms. Side effects include weakened system and an increased risk of blood and heart condition .

During relapses, affected nerve areas can become inflamed. you’ll have severe pain and loss of vision or bodily process .

Steroids can reduce swelling and permit you to return to normal function sooner. samples of steroids wont to treat MS are prednisone (a pill) and methylprednisolone (a shot).

Steroids should be taken to treat short-term symptoms. they are doing not treat long-term effects of MS.

Resources

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis

National Multiple Sclerosis Society

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